The mad capsule marketsworld binary options35 comments
Salary for a stock option trading software
Este glosario tiene dos partes: Este documento, disponible en pdf , explica cada una de las secciones de la tabla de Resumen de resultados Summary of Findings table. Acontecimiento adverso Adverse event. Dirigido por el azar. Ver validez externa external validity. Una de las bases de datos en The Cochrane Library. Cegamiento Blinding [En un ensayo controlado: Cegamiento simple Single blind.
Comparaciones multiples Multiple comparisons. Datos agregados Aggregate data. Individual patient data [In metaanalysis: Datos ordinales Ordinal data. Desenlace primario Primary outcome. Desenlace secundario Secondary outcome. Desenlaces indirectos Surrogate outcomes. Diferencia absoluta de riesgo Absolute risk difference. Mean difference [In meta-analysis: Diferencia de riesgos Risk difference.
Diferencia estandarizada de medias Standardised mean difference. Diferencia ponderada de medias Weighted mean difference. Dosis dependiente Dose dependent. Efecto adverso Adverse effect. Efecto causal Causal effect. Efecto del tratamiento Treatment effect.
Efecto secundario Side effect. Emparejamiento En un estudio de casos y controles: Ensayo aleatorizado por conglomerados Cluster randomised trial. Ensayo controlado Controlled trial. Ensayo controlado y aleatorizado Randomised controlled trial.
Ensayo cruzado Cross-over trial. Ensayo de equivalencia Equivalence trial. Ensayo de grupos paralelos Parallel group trial. Ensayo de no-inferioridad Non-inferiority trial. Ensayo explicativo Explanatory trial. Ensayo secuencial Sequential trial. Error aleatorio Random error. Error debido al azar. Estudio de casos y controles Case-control study. Estudio de cohortes Cohort study. Estudio de prevalencia Prevalence study.
Estudio de un caso Case study. Estudio descriptivo Descriptive study. Estudio experimental Experimental study. Estudio negativo Negative study.
Estudio no aleatorizado Non-randomised study. Estudio no experimental Non-experimental study. Estudio observacional Observational study. Estudio positivo Positive study. Estudio primario Primary study. Estudio prospectivo Prospective study. Estudio retrospectivo Retrospective study. Estudio secundario Secondary study. Un estudio de estudios: Estudio transversal Cross-sectional study. Unlike an experimental study , the investigators do not actively intervene to test a hypothesis, but merely describe the health status or characteristics of a sample from a defined population.
Also called ascertainment bias. Distribution The collection of values of a variable in the population or the sample, sometimes called an empirical distribution. See also probability distribution. Also called binary data. Sometimes continuous data or ordinal data are simplified into dichotomous data e.
Dose dependent A response to a drug which may be related to the amount received i. Sometimes trials are done to test the effect of different dosages of the same drug. This may be true for both benefits and harms. Dose response relationship The relationship between the quantity of treatment given and its effect on outcome. In meta-analysis , dose-response relationships can be investigated using meta-regression. Double blind See blinding. See cost-benefit analysis , cost-effectiveness analysis , and cost-utility analysis.
Effectiveness The extent to which a specific intervention , when used under ordinary circumstances, does what it is intended to do. Clinical trials that assess effectiveness are sometimes called pragmatic or management trials. Efficacy The extent to which an intervention produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions. Clinical trials that assess efficacy are sometimes called explanatory trials and are restricted to participants who fully co-operate.
Years of coverage - to present. Empirical Empirical results are based on experience or observation rather than on reasoning alone. Epidemiology The study of the health of populations and communities, not just particular individuals. Equipoise A state of uncertainty where a person believes it is equally likely that either of two treatment options is better. Equivalence trial A trial designed to determine whether the response to two or more treatments differs by an amount that is clinically unimportant.
This is usually demonstrated by showing that the true treatment difference is likely to lie between a lower and an upper equivalence level of clinically acceptable differences. See also non-inferiority trial. Estimate of effect synonym: Also called treatment effect. Event rate See risk. Experimental intervention An intervention under evaluation.
In a controlled tria l, an experimental intervention arm is compared with one or more control arms, and possibly with additional experimental intervention arms. Experimental study the investigators actively intervene to test a hypothesis. In a controlled trial , one type of experiment, the people receiving the treatment being tested are said to be in the experimental group or arm of the trial.
Explanatory trial A trial that aims to test a treatment policy in an ideal situation where patients receive the full course of therapy as prescribed, and use of other treatments may be controlled or restricted. See also pragmatic trial. For instance, a meta-analysis of trials of elderly patients may not be generalisable to children.
Also called generalisability or applicability. Factorial design A trial design used to assess the individual contribution of treatments given in combination, as well as any interactive effect they may have. Most trials only consider a single factor, where an intervention is compared with one or more alternatives, or a placebo. In a trial using a 2x2 factorial design, participants are allocated to one of four possible combinations.
For example in a 2x2 factorial RCT of nicotine replacement and counselling, participants would be allocated to: In this way it is possible to test the independent effect of each intervention on smoking cessation and the combined effect of interaction between the two interventions. This type of study is usually carried out in circumstances where no interaction is likely. Fixed effect model [In meta-analysis: Studies are assumed to be measuring the same overall effect. An alternative model is the random-effects model.
Hazard ratio A measure of effect produced by a survival analysis.