Latest Trend in Low latency programming
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In capital marketslow latency is the use of algorithmic trading to react to market events faster than the competition to increase profitability of trades. There are many technical factors which impact on the time it takes a trading system to detect an opportunity and to successfully exploit that opportunity. Firms engaged in low latency trading are willing to invest considerable effort and resources to increase the speed of their trading technology as the gains can be significant.
This is often done in the context of high-frequency trading. There are many factors which impact on the time it takes a trading low latency trading platform to detect an opportunity and to successfully exploit that opportunity, including:. From a networking perspective, the speed of light "c" dictates one theoretical latency limit: This theoretical limit assumes light is travelling in a straight line in a vacuum which in practise is unlikely to happen: Firstly achieving and maintaining low latency trading platform vacuum over a long distance is difficult and secondly, light cannot easily be beamed and received over long distances due to many factors, including the curvature of the earth, interference by particles in the air, etc.
Light travelling within dark fibre cables does not travel at the speed of light - "c" - since there is no vacuum and the light is constantly reflected off the walls of the cable, lengthening the effective path travelled in comparison to the length of the cable and hence slowing it low latency trading platform. There are also in practice several routers, switches, other cable links and protocol changes between an exchange and a trading system. As a result, most low latency trading engines will be found physically close to the exchanges, even in the same building as the exchange co-location to further reduce latency.
To further reduce latency, new technologies are being employed. Wireless data transmission technology can offer speed advantages over low latency trading platform best cabling options, as signals can travel faster through air than fiber. Wireless transmission can also allow data to move in a low latency trading platform, more direct path than cabling routes. A crucial factor in determining the latency of a data channel is its throughput.
Data rates are increasing exponentially which has a direct relation to the speed at which messages can be processed. Also, low-latency low latency trading platform need not only to be able to get a message from A to B as quickly as possible, but also need to be able to process millions of messages per second.
See comparison of latency and throughput for a more in-depth discussion. When talking about latency in the context of capital markets, consider the round trip between event and trade:. The systems at a particular venue need to handle events, low latency trading platform as order placement, and get them onto the wire as quickly as possible to be competitive within the market place.
Some venues offer premium services for clients needing the quickest solutions. This is one of the areas where most delay can be added, due to the distances involved, amount of processing by internal routing engines, hand off between different networks and the sheer amount of data which is being sent, received and processed from various data venues.
However, when measuring latency of data we need to account for the fiber optic cable. Although it seems "pure", it is not a vacuum and therefore refraction of light needs to be accounted for.
For measuring latency in long-haul networks, the calculated latency is actually 4. In shorter metro networks, the latency performance rises a bit more due to building risers and cross-connects that can make the latency as high as 5 microseconds per kilometre. It follows that to calculate latency of a connection, one needs to know the full distance travelled by the fiber, which is rarely a straight line, since it has to traverse geographic contours and obstacles, such as roads and railway tracks, as well as other rights-of-way.
Due to imperfections in the fiber, light degrades as it is transmitted through it. For distances greater than kilometres, either amplifiers or regenerators need to be deployed.
Accepted wisdom has it that amplifiers add less latency than regenerators, though in both cases the added latency can be highly variable, which needs to be taken into account.
In particular, legacy spans are more likely to low latency trading platform use of higher latency regenerators. However, it is included for completeness. As with delays between Exchange and Application, many trades will involve a brokerage firm 's systems.
The competitiveness of the brokerage firm in many cases is directly related to the performance of their order placement and management systems. Average latency is the mean average time for a message to be passed from one point to another - the lower the better. Times under 1 millisecond are typical for a market data system.
Co-location is the act of locating high frequency trading firms' and proprietary traders' computers in the same premises where an exchange's computer servers are located.
This gives traders access to stock prices slightly before other investors. Many exchanges have turned co-location into a significant moneymaker by charging trading firms for "low low latency trading platform access" privileges.
Increasing demand for co-location has led many stock exchanges to expand their data centers. There are many use cases where predictability of latency in message delivery is just as important, if not more important than achieving a low average latency. This latency predictability is also referred to as "Low Latency Jitter" and describes a deviation of latencies around the mean latency measurement.
Throughput can be defined as amount of data processed per unit of time. Throughput refers to the number of messages being received, sent and processed by the system and is usually measured in updates per second.
Throughput has a correlation low latency trading platform latency measurements and typically as the message rate increases so do the latency figures. Clock accuracy is paramount when testing low latency trading platform latency between systems.
Any discrepancies will give inaccurate results. Many tests involve locating the low latency trading platform node and the receiving node on the same machine to ensure the same clock time is being used. Reducing latency in the order chain involves attacking the problem from many angles. Amdahl's Lawcommonly used to calculate performance gains of throwing more CPUs at a problem, can be applied more generally to improving latency — that is, improving a portion of a system which is already fairly inconsequential with respect to latency will result in minimal improvement in the overall performance.
Another strategy for reducing latency involves pushing the decision low latency trading platform on trades to a Network Interface Card. This can alleviate the need to involve the system's main processor, which can create undesirable delays in response time. Known as network-side processing, because the processing involved takes place as close to the network interface as possible, this practice is a design factor for "ultra-low latency systems.