Ebooks @ Pitt: Devices & Downloading
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There is a growing interest in converting paper books to bytes Carvajal as well as writing new titles in digital form. This in turn has resulted in a collection of hybrid definitions of e-books. Initially, paper books that had been converted to a digital format, usually through digitising processes which allow them to be displayed on computers, were defined as e-books. Then, the term options trading pdf e-books password php began to encompass multimedia, hypertext or hypermedia systems that are based on a book metaphor.
Recently, the definition of an e-book has been extended to include book titles that are available online, that can be read as email, can be retrieved by a portable electronic reading device, or as a file that can be downloaded on to a computer CarvajalAllenClister Another recent interpretation of an e-book is the "print-on-demand" book where the contents are stored in a system connected to a high-speed, high-quality printer, from which printed and bound copies are produced on demand with the possibility of buying chapter-by-chapter, customised books Hawkins a.
E-books are also defined diversely options trading pdf e-books password php researchers to fit their own expectations. OEB defines a more precise terminology:. This paper starts with discussion of hardware and software based e-book readers. Different types of e-book formats and standards are detailed.
This is followed by a discussion on electronic publishers e-publisherselectronic bookstores e-bookstores and digital libraries where e-books can be acquired and purchased. The publishing process and how to build e-books using e-book compilers are explained. The final part of this paper highlights the use of e-books to improve the interaction between distance learning students and educators, and to improve access to learning materials.
In another type of e-book medium was introduced to the public: The emergence of the e-book has resulted in many companies manufacturing electronic reading devices dedicated readers used for displaying, reading and storing electronic information.
Gemstar International Group, one of the leading companies involved in electronic technology, acquired NuvoMedia and SoftBook Press in early The nature of the devices market has been evolving. Initially the companies only targeted professionals who require access to lots of reference material Judge Now, they are targeting a more general mass market such as students, academics and individuals. These machines are produced purposely for reading downloaded electronic contents.
They are lightweight devices aimed at duplicating the familiar experience of reading a paper book, yet contain electronic-age features to further enhance convenience and enjoyment Thomson Multimedia O'Donnell stated that all these devices have one common function in that they are dedicated to reading e-books only, and are not as sophisticated as handheld computers or personal digital assistants PDAs.
This statement no longer holds, however, as since hybrid devices Wilson that contain address books, diary, calculator and PDA-associated functions have also been used to read e-books. An example is the Franklin eBookMan. The latest addition to PDA technology is the all-in-one colour monitor handheld O2 xda which allows users to access the Internet, make phone calls, send emails, use Microsoft Word and Excel, read e-books, organise a diary, listen to music and play games.
PDAs are rapidly becoming a common technology at school because they allow students and teachers to do essential tasks such as note taking, word processing, graph drawing, emailing and browsing.
Another approach, demonstrated by the EInk project, is a flexible paper-like electronic display on thin sheets of plastic.
The basic idea behind electronic paper is that it is a reusable display device, allowing storage of visual content on a 'page' of plastic paper. This technology is in its very early stages, but EInk has expressed the desire to create the technology to allow the development of electronic devices that work like paper books.
Options trading pdf e-books password php have a number of advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages over traditional paper books include:. Full descriptions of the advantages of these reading devices can be found in Williams a. Although they have a number of advantages over paper options trading pdf e-books password php, reading from these devices is reported to cause more eye strain and glare Williams b.
Display quality is poor because of low resolution compared with paper, and the devices are still too expensive for the average person to buy. In addition to e-book reading devices, general-purpose software book readers can be used on personal computers or laptops. These function in similar way to dedicated readers but no special hardware is required.
One advantage of software-based readers Lynch is that in addition to offering the functions of dedicated readers, they offer extra facilities through a keyboard and larger screen size. Two versions of the Microsoft Reader are available as a free download from the Microsoft Web site:. The Microsoft Reader interface is designed specifically for reading online. It includes ClearType technology developed by Microsoft to enhance LCD screen clarity, and allows annotation, bookmarking, drawing and font size alteration.
A text-to-speech feature can be activated when the associated software is downloaded from Microsoft. Page display and personalising effects in Microsoft Reader. Acrobat Reader is widely used and comes pre-installed on many computers, making PDF a popular e-book format. It allows easy buying and downloading of e-books at the Adobe eBook Mall and other online booksellers such as eBookTech.
Features include Figures 3 and E-books are available in a wide range of formats, the simplest of which is plain ASCII-standard text. However, this format is extremely unappealing to read, cannot preserve formatting and cannot handle graphics. To solve these problems, the following formats can be used AllenArmstrong and LonsdaleHawkins a:.
The most popular journal formats according to Hitchcock et al. Although options trading pdf e-books password php study is now rather dated, the findings hold for existing e-books considered in this study. This may soon change as the LIT format is becoming widely used. Frauenfelder described and compared the features of these formats, concluding that publishers would prefer the de facto standard to be OEBPS or PDF.
Content options trading pdf e-books password php the readers can come from a variety of online sources such as novels, journals, newspapers, magazines and manuals. Unfortunately the number of printed books, especially textbooks, in electronic format is relatively small. Online books currently consist mostly of works whose copyrights have expired Moschella Project Gutenberg has been collecting thousands of out-of-copyright titles since and offering them to the public for free.
A new trend is options trading pdf e-books password php, however, where electronic publishers such as Fatbrain, iUniverse and IstBooks have successfully produced and sold new electronic titles. Customers have shown an interest in books about computers and business Carvajal as well as romance and science fiction novels AllenHawkins a. Well known writers such as Stephen King are among those interested in marketing their books options trading pdf e-books password php electronic format. To buy textbooks using "print-on-demand" or custom-made chapters and pages, readers can go to McGraw Hill Primis.
This is an innovative bookselling concept that allows readers to buy e-books which are read using software-based readers such as Adobe Acrobat eBook Reader.
Books that are produced and stored electronically rather than in print are the result of electronic publishing e-publishing. From a financial point of view, e-publishing eliminates printing, binding, storage and transportation costs Borchers Nevertheless, it is probably just as costly or more costly to employ skilled editorial and technical staff such as graphic artists, audio and video specialists, animators, etc.
As there is still no single standard format, or indeed a universal definition, for an e-book, the process of producing one can still be interpreted in many different ways depending on the type of e-book and its purpose. For example, for textual e-books, the process can involve simply digitising a printed book, or applying markup languages.
For multimedia or hypermedia books, a different approach is often options trading pdf e-books password php, involving additional steps such as creating graphics, audio, animation and video. The e-book publishing industry is currently concentrating on textual e-books with limited multimedia content van Buren and Cogswell The e-publishing process closely resembles traditional print publishing ModelandPrabha and goes through similar stages:.
In the e-publishing process, stage 5 entails further phases, which are adopted from the software development life cycle see books on software engineering to provide the e-books with an appropriate user interface and content presentation.
The phases involved in stage 5 depend greatly on the type of content to be produced and their purposes. The contents can be in any of the following form:. According to Borchers each category can be used in education e. If an e-book options trading pdf e-books password php being produced for learning purposes, its development process should also consider instructional design a systematic approach to designing instructional materials to achieve specified learning objectives; Bostock and accommodate a wide range of different learning styles.
One good example in creating textual e-book content is to follow the phases suggested by Landoni She started by selecting a formalism either logic or grammar then constructed a conceptual model, which defines the structure of the e-book.
Then the interface was designed with specific attention paid to ergonomic and text presentation issues. Creating textual e-books is becoming easier with the introduction of e-book compilers. Books are created by merging the existing text files, and the compilers automatically generate the structure and the interface of the books. Designing multimedia or hypermedia books normally requires more steps as it options trading pdf e-books password php more media. In textual e-books or any other single mediumdesigners need only follow guidelines such as using appropriate fonts, making text readable and considering type styles and colours.
For multimedia or hypermedia books, on the other hand, design considerations are focused on graphics, audio, animation, video, text, as well as on their combination. There are options trading pdf e-books password php number of resources that give advice and guidelines for authors who are interested in publishing e-books.
A typical example is Writing-World. Among the popular publishers and e-book stores are: Some publishers require submissions to follow certain guidelines to ensure easy conversion to their e-book format, e. Authors have three e-publishing choices: Commercially published e-books are sold primarily through the publisher's Web site and online bookstores. Authors pay no publication fee, and receive royalties. Subsidy e-publishers options trading pdf e-books password php and distribute books for a fee, and authors receive royalties.
Unlike commercial books, manuscripts for subsidy books are usually accepted regardless of their quality, and publishers do not provide editorial services or proof-reading, and the responsibility for promoting a book rests primarily with the authors HenkeAllen In self-publishing, the authors are responsible for the entire process of publishing their books, from development to marketing.
A more detailed information about these publishing choices is discussed in Henke and van Buren and Cogswell This is achieved through the use of a program called an e-book compiler. A compiler can be defined as software that is designed to take a number of HTML or text pages and combine them into a single file. There are numerous compilers on the market:. For students or individuals who cannot afford to buy commercial compilers, there are also free and trial compilers that can be downloaded from the Internet e.
Ebook Builder 4 and KeeBook Creator. To create PDF files, users can use Gymnastfreeware by Robert Schifreen, which supports hyperlinks, annotations, and automatic generation of bookmarks from headings.